|  ISSN: 2757-6116

Original article | Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 2022, Vol. 3(2) 113-127

What should we understand from teachers' professional identity? An overview of the literature

Ünal Deni̇z

pp. 113 - 127   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/jirte.2022.464.4   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2203-19-0003.R1

Published online: September 13, 2022  |   Number of Views: 33  |  Number of Download: 185


The roles of teachers in organizing, directing, evaluating, and applying within the school place teachers in a critical position in determining the quality of education. For this reason, it is accepted that teacher qualification is an important indicator of the quality of education. At this point, the concept of professional identity, which includes teachers' professional learning, development, and practices, gains importance. The concept of professional identity emerged as a separate research topic in the literature after the 1980s and has gradually increased in the following years. Although current studies provide an important understanding of the concept, the formation and development of teachers’ professional identities continue to be seen as one of the main problem areas in the literature. From this point of view, in this study, the formation and development of teachers’ professional identities have been comprehensively discussed based on the relevant literature. The results of the research show that although teachers' professional identity has critical importance in teacher development and teaching practices, important questions remain about how teacher education can participate in identity construction. In this respect, it is thought that the results obtained within the scope of the study are important in terms of showing the basic elements that affect the formation and development of teachers’ professional identities. In addition, it is thought that the study may offer various ideas to policymakers and practitioners to establish a standard professional identity development procedure that will prioritize the professional development of teachers. 

Keywords: Professional Identity Development, Teachers’ Professional Identity, Theory-Practice in Professional Identity.

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Deni̇z, U. (2022). What should we understand from teachers' professional identity? An overview of the literature . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), 113-127. doi: 10.29329/jirte.2022.464.4

Deni̇z, U. (2022). What should we understand from teachers' professional identity? An overview of the literature . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), pp. 113-127.

Chicago 16th edition
Deni̇z, Unal (2022). "What should we understand from teachers' professional identity? An overview of the literature ". Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 3 (2):113-127. doi:10.29329/jirte.2022.464.4.


    Ajayi, L. (2011). How ESL teachers’ sociocultural identities mediate their teacher role identities in a diverse urban school setting. The Urban Review43(5), 654-680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-010-0161-y

    Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2000). Economics and identity. The Quarterly Journal of Economics115(3), 715-753. Retrieved December 29, 2021, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2586894.pdf

    Akkerman, S. F., & Meijer, P. C. (2011). A dialogical approach to conceptualizing teacher identity. Teaching and Teacher Education27(2), 308-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.013

    Alsup, J. (2006). Teacher identity discourses: Negotiating personal and professional spaces. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Anspal, T., Eisenschmidt, E., & Löfström, E. (2012). Finding myself as a teacher: Exploring the shaping of teacher identities through student teachers’ narratives. Teachers and Teaching18(2), 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2012.632268

    Anspal, T., Leijen, Ä., & Löfström, E. (2019). Tensions and the teacher’s role in student teacher identity development in primary and subject teacher curricula. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research63(5), 679-695. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2012.632268

    Arnon, S., & Reichel, N. (2007). Who is the ideal teacher? Am I? Similarity and difference in perception of students of education regarding the qualities of a good teacher and of their own qualities as teachers. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice13(5), 441-464. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600701561653

    Assaf, L. C. (2008). Professional identity of a reading teacher: responding to high‐stakes testing pressures. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice14(3), 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600802006137

    Barrett, B. D. (2009). No Child Left Behind and the assault on teachers’ professional practices and identities. Teaching and Teacher Education25(8), 1018-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.03.021

    Battey, D., & Franke, M. L. (2008). Transforming identities: Understanding teachers across professional development and classroom practice. Teacher Education Quarterly35(3), 127-149. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/23478985 Ac

    Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 680-740). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

    Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2006). Imagination and reflection in teacher education: The development of professional identity from student teaching to beginning practice. Conference proceedings of the 4th annual research symposium on imagination and education, opening doors to imaginative education: Connecting theory to practice, Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 175-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057640902902252

    Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2010). Reflecting on an ideal: Student teachers envision a future identity. Reflective Practice11(5), 631-643. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2010.516975

    Beijaard, D. (1995). Teachers’ prior experiences and actual perceptions of professional identity. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1(2), 281-294. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354060950010209

    Beijaard, D., Meijer, P. C., & Verloop, N. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education20(2), 107-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2003.07.001

    Beijaard, D., Verloop, N., & Vermunt, J. D. (2000). Teachers’ perceptions of professional identity: An exploratory study from a personal knowledge perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education16(7), 749-764. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00023-8

    Bell, B., & Gilbert, J. (1994). Teacher development as professional, personal, and social development. Teaching and Teacher Education10(5), 483-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X(94)90002-7

    Berliner, D. (1986). In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Researcher, 15(7), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015007007

    Bernstein, M., & Olsen, K. A. (2009). Identity deployment and social change: understanding identity as a social movement and organizational strategy 1. Sociology Compass3(6), 871-883. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2009.00255.x

    Bosma, H. A., & Kunnen, E. S. (2008). Identity-in-context is not yet identity development-in-context. Journal of Adolescence31(2), 281-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.03.001

    Buchanan, J. (2011). Teacher dis/appointments? Transitions into and out of teaching. Curriculum Perspectives, 31, 12-24. Retrieved February 3, 2022, from https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/18790/1/2011003626OK.pdf

    Bucholtz, M., & Hall, K. (2005). Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies7(4-5), 585-614. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407

    Buehl, M. M., & Beck, J. S. (2015). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and teachers’ practices. In H. Fives, & M. G. Gill (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs (pp. 66-84). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Bullough, R. V. (1997). Practicing theory and theorizing practice. In J. Loughran, & T. Russell (Eds.), Purpose, passion and pedagogy in teacher education (pp. 13-31). London: The Falmer Press.

    Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity theory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Caires, S., Almeida, L., & Vieira, D. (2012). Becoming a teacher: Student teachers’ experiences and perceptions about teaching practice. European Journal of Teacher Education35(2), 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2011.643395

    Chong, S., & Low, E. L. (2009). Why I want to teach and how I feel about teaching—formation of teacher identity from pre-service to the beginning teacher phase. Educational Research for Policy and Practice8(1), 59-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2011.643395

    Chong, S., Low, E. L., & Goh, K. C. (2011). Emerging professional teacher identity of preservice teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education36(8), 50-64. Retrieved January 11, 2022, from https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/aeipt.189887

    Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (1999). Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in communities. Review of Research in Education24(1), 249-305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1167272

    Crocco, M. S., & Costigan, A. T. (2007). The narrowing of curriculum and pedagogy in the age of accountability urban educators speak out. Urban Education42(6), 512-535. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085907304964

    Dall’Alba, G. (2009). Learning to be professionals. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Dall’Alba, G., & Sandberg, J. (2006). Unveiling professional development: A critical review of stage models. Review of Educational Research76(3), 383-412. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076003383

    Danielewicz, J. (2001). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy and teacher education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Darling-Hammond L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence (Research Report R-99-1). Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Retrieved February 9, 2022, from https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/viewFile/392/515

    Darling-Hammond, L., & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining “highly qualified teachers”: What does “scientifically-based research” actually tell us?. Educational Researcher31(9), 13-25. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X031009013

    Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2007). Variations in the conditions for teachers’ professional learning and development: Sustaining commitment and effectiveness over a career. Oxford Review of Education33(4), 423-443. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701450746

    Day, C., & Sachs, J. (2004). Professionalism, performativity and empowerment: Discourses in the politics, policies and purposes of continuing professional development. In C. Day & J. Sachs (Eds.), International handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers (pp. 3-32). Berkshire: Open University Press.

    Day, C., Elliot, B., & Kington, A. (2005). Reform, standards and teacher identity: Challenges of sustaining commitment. Teaching and Teacher Education21(5), 563-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.03.001

    Day, C., Kington, A., Stobart, G., & Sammons, P. (2006). The personal and professional selves of teachers: Stable and unstable identities. British Educational Research Journal32(4), 601-616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.03.001

    Diaz-Maggioli, G. (2003). Professional development for language teachers. Eric Digest3(3), 1-4. Retrieved March 2, 2022, from https://unitus.org/FULL/0303diaz.pdf

    Doise, W. (1998). Social representations in personal identity. In S. Worchel, J.F. Morlas, D. Paez, & J. C. Deschamps (Eds.), Social identity: International perspectives (pp. 13-23). London: Sage Publications.

    Dreyfus, S., & Dreyfus, H. (1980). A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Operations Research Center, University of California. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA084551.pdf

    Duff, P. A., & Uchida, Y. (1997). The negotiation of teachers’ sociocultural identities and practices in postsecondary EFL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly31(3), 451-486. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587834

    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle: A reissue. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Erikson, E. H. (1994). Insight and responsibility. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Farrell, T. S. (2012). Novice‐service language teacher development: Bridging the gap between preservice and in‐service education and development. Tesol Quarterly46(3), 435-449. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.36

    Ferguson, R. F. (1991). Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why money matters. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 28(2), 465-498. Retrieved December 14, 2021, from https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/hjl28&div=24&id=&page=

    Flores, M. A., & Day, C. (2006). Contexts which shape and reshape new teachers’ identities: A multi-perspective study. Teaching and Teacher Education22(2), 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.09.002

    Fraser, C., Kennedy, A., Reid, L., & Mckinney, S. (2007). Teachers’ continuing professional development: Contested concepts, understandings and models. Journal of In-Service Education33(2), 153-169. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674580701292913

    Furlong, C. (2013). The teacher I wish to be: Exploring the influence of life histories on student teacher idealised identities. European Journal of Teacher Education36(1), 68-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2012.678486

    Gee, J. P. (2000). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. Review of Research in Education, 25(1), 99-125. Retrieved December 29, 2021, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1167322

    Gee, J. P. (2001). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. In W. G. Secada (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 25, pp. 99-125). American Educational Research Association.

    Graven, M. (2004). Investigating mathematics teacher learning within an in-service community of practice: The centrality of confidence. Educational Studies in Mathematics57(2), 177-211. Retrieved May 16, 2022, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/4150270

    Gülerce, A. (2014). Selfing as, with, and without othering: Dialogical (im) possibilities with dialogical self theory. Culture & Psychology20(2), 244-255. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X14526897

    Hargreaves, A., & Lo, L. N. (2000). The paradoxical profession: Teaching at the turn of the century. Prospects30(2), 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02754063

    Harris, D. N., & Sass, T.R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Economics, 95(7), 798-812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.11.009

    Hong, J. Y. (2010). Pre-service and beginning teachers’ professional identity and its relation to dropping out of the profession. Teaching and Teacher Education26(8), 1530-1543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.06.003

    İlğan, A., Çalı, M. Ç., Sevim, F., & Bolat, Ö. (2021). The effect of educators’ perception of organizational trust on professional development. Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 2(3), 193-213. https://doi.org/10.29329/jirte.2021.408.2

    Izadinia, M. (2013). A review of research on student teachers’ professional identity. British Educational Research Journal, 39(4), 694-713. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411926.2012.679614

    Johnson, K. (2001). Social identities and the NNES MA TESOL student (Research report). Bloomington: Indiana University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED457682). Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457682.pdf

    Johnston, J. L. (2012). Using identity as a tool for investigation: A methodological option in the researcher’s toolbox. International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 5(5), 1-9. Retrieved February 11, 2022, from http://www.universitypublications.net/ijas/0505/pdf/FIR106.pdf

    Kennedy, A. (2005). Models of continuing professional development: a framework for analysis. Journal of In-Service Education, 31(2), 235-250. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674580500200277

    Korthagen, F. A. (2004). In search of the essence of a good teacher: Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education20(1), 77-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2003.10.002

    Korthagen, F., & Vasalos, A. (2005). Levels in reflection: Core reflection as a means to enhance professional growth. Teachers and Teaching11(1), 47-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354060042000337093

    Lasky, S. (2005). A sociocultural approach to understanding teacher identity, agency and professional vulnerability in a context of secondary school reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(8), 899-916. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.003

    Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Leander, K. M. (2002). Locating Latanya: The situated production of identity artifacts in classroom interaction. Research in the Teaching of English (37)2, 198-250. Retrieved February 10, 2022, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/40171622

    Maclean, R., & White, S. (2007). Video reflection and the formation of teacher identity in a team of pre‐service and experienced teachers. Reflective Practice8(1), 47-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623940601138949

    Martel, J. (2015). Learning to teach a foreign language: Identity negotiation and conceptualizations of pedagogical progress. Foreign Language Annals48(3), 394-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12144

    Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Mockler, N. (2011). Beyond ‘what works’: Understanding teacher identity as a practical and political tool. Teachers and Teaching17(5), 517-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2011.602059

    Morgan, B., & Clarke, M. (2011). Identity in second language teaching and learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol. 2, pp. 817-836). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

    Mosteller, F. (1995). The Tennessee study of class size in the early school grades. The Future of Children: Critical Issues for Children and Youths, 5(2), 113-127. https://doi.org/10.2307/1602360

    Noonan, H. W. (2007). Identity eliminated. Analysis67(2), 122-127. Retrieved January 9, 2022, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/25597788

    O’Connor, K. E. (2008). “You choose to care”: Teachers, emotions and professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education24(1), 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.11.008

    OECD (1998). Staying ahead: In-service training and teacher professional development. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved January 5, 2022, from https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/staying-ahead_9789264163041-en#page1

    Olsen, B. (2008). How reasons for entry into the profession illuminate teacher identity development. Teacher Education Quarterly35(3), 23-40. Retrieved January 14, 2022, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ831706.pdf

    Oplatka, I. (2010). The legacy of educational administration: A historical analysis of an academic field. Hamburg: Peter Lang Publisher.

    Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.) Handbook of self and identity (pp. 69-104). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

    Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062003307

    Pennington, M. C. (2014). Teacher identity in TESOL: A frames perspective. In Y. L. Cheung, S. B. Said, & K. Park (Eds.), Advances and current trends in language teacher identity research (pp. 38-52). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Périer, P. (2013). Crisis and/or identity reconfiguration for new secondary school teachers?. Recherche Formation, 74(3), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.4000/rechercheformation.2117

    Pillen, M. T., Den Brok, P. J., & Beijaard, D. (2013). Profiles and change in beginning teachers’ professional identity tensions. Teaching and Teacher Education34, 86-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.04.003

    Poom-Valickis, K., & Löfström, E. (2019). “Pupils should have respect for you, although I have no idea how to achieve this?”: The ideals and experiences shaping a teacher’s professional identity. Educational Studies45(2), 145-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2018.1446323

    Reio Jr, T. G. (2005). Emotions as a lens to explore teacher identity and change: A commentary. Teaching and Teacher Education21(8), 985-993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.008

    Reis, D. S. (2011). Non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) and professional legitimacy: A sociocultural theoretical perspective on identity transformation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 208(2011), 139-160. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2011.016

    Rodgers, C., & Scott, K. (2008). The development of the personal self and professional identity in learning to teach. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D.J. McIntyre & K.E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions and changing contexts (pp. 732-755). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2013). Struggling for a professional identity: Two newly qualified language teachers' identity narratives during the first years at work. Teaching and Teacher Education30, 120-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.11.002

    Ruohotie-Lyhty, M., & Moate, J. (2016). Who and how? Preservice teachers as active agents developing professional identities. Teaching and Teacher Education55, 318-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.01.022

    Sachs, J. (2001). Teacher professional identity: Competing discourses, competing outcomes. Journal of Education Policy16(2), 149-161. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930116819

    Sachs, J. (2003). Teacher professional standards: controlling or developing teaching?. Teachers and Teaching9(2), 175-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600309373

    Schepens, A., Aelterman, A., & Vlerick, P. (2009). Student teachers’ professional identity formation: between being born as a teacher and becoming one. Educational studies35(4), 361-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690802648317

    Schwartz, S. J., Luyckx, K., & Vignoles, V. L. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of identity theory and research. New York, NY: Springer.

    Sfard, A., & Prusak, A. (2005). Telling identities: In search of an analytic tool for investigating learning as a culturally shaped activity. Educational Researcher34(4), 14-22. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X034004014

    Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher15(2), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004

    Stenberg, K., Karlsson, L., Pitkaniemi, H., & Maaranen, K. (2014). Beginning student teachers’ teacher identities based on their practical theories. European Journal of Teacher Education37(2), 204-219. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.882309

    Sugrue, C. (2005). Revisiting teaching archetypes: Re-conceptualizing student teachers’ lay theories and identities. In D. Bijaard, P. C. Meijer, G. Morine-Dershimer, & H. Tillema (Eds.), Teacher professional development in changing conditions (pp. 149-164). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Sutherland, L., Howard, S., & Markauskaite, L. (2010). Professional identity creation: Examining the development of beginning preservice teachers’ understanding of their work as teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education26(3), 455-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.06.006

    Taylor, C. (1994). The politics of recognition. In C. Taylor, K. A. Appiah, S. C. Rockefeller, M. Waltzer, & S. Wolf (Eds.), Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (pp. 25-73). New Jersey, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Thomas, L., & Beauchamp, C. (2007). Learning to live well as teachers in a changing world: Insights into developing a professional identity in teacher education. The Journal of Educational Thought, 41(3), 229-243. Retrieved January 25, 2022, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/23765520

    Tickle, L. (1999). Teacher self-appraisal and appraisal of self. In R. P. Lipka & T. M. Brinthaupt (Eds.), The role of self in teacher development (pp. 121-141). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Torres-Guzmán, M., & Madrigal, R. (2011). Reflections on the life of a bilingual teacher. In I. M. Saleh & M. S. Khine (Eds.), Teaching teachers: Approaches in improving quality education (pp. 227-246). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

    Van Zoest, L. R., & Bohl, J. V. (2005). Mathematics teacher identity: A framework for understanding secondary school mathematics teachers’ learning through practice. Teacher Development9(3), 315-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530500200258

    Varghese, M. (2004). Professional development for bilingual teachers in the United States: A site for articulating and contesting professional roles. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 7(2-3), 222-237. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597565-008

    Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education4(1), 21-44. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327701jlie0401_2

    Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Walkington, J. (2005). Becoming a teacher: Encouraging development of teacher identity through reflective practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education33(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866052000341124

    Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning as a social system. Systems Thinker9(5), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/135050840072002

    Wetherell, M. (2010). The field of identity studies. In M. Wetherell & C. Mohanty (Eds.), The Sage handbook of identities (pp. 3-26). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Yaacoub, H. K. (2011). Professional identities of part-time academics. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 4(11), 223-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360144X.2019.1593176

    Zembylas, M. (2003). Interrogating “teacher identity”: Emotion, resistance, and self-formation. Educational Theory, 53(1), 107-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2003.00107.x