|  ISSN: 2757-6116

Original article | Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 2022, Vol. 3(2) 62-75

The mediator role of school burnout in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being

Seli̇m Gündoğan

pp. 62 - 75   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/jirte.2022.464.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2204-07-0002.R1

Published online: September 13, 2022  |   Number of Views: 57  |  Number of Download: 199


This study aims to investigate the mediator role of school burnout in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being. Participants of the study are 390 university students aged between 18 and 30. In the study, the Self-Regulation Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, and the short form of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire have been applied to collect data. The results demonstrated that self-regulation positively affects subjective well-being while negatively affecting school burnout as school burnout also negatively affects subjective well-being. Additionally, it was concluded that school burnout has a mediatory role in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being. Based on these findings, it could be stated that any study that would be carried out to promote the self-regulation skills of an individual would lead to positive results in subjective well-being and would improve skills to cope with school burnout.

Keywords: Young Adult, Self-Regulation, School Burnout, Subjective Well-Being, University Students.

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Gundogan, S. (2022). The mediator role of school burnout in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), 62-75. doi: 10.29329/jirte.2022.464.1

Gundogan, S. (2022). The mediator role of school burnout in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), pp. 62-75.

Chicago 16th edition
Gundogan, Seli̇m (2022). "The mediator role of school burnout in the relationship between self-regulation and subjective well-being ". Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 3 (2):62-75. doi:10.29329/jirte.2022.464.1.


    Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

    Arnett, J. J., & Tanner, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (p. 3). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Asikainen, H., Salmela-Aro, K., Parpala, A., & Katajavuori, N. (2020). Learning profiles and their relation to study-related burnout and academic achievement among university students. Learning and Individual Differences, 78, 101781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101781

    Aypay, A. (2011). Elementary school student burnout scale for grades 6-8: A study of validity and reliability. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice11(2), 520-527. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ927363.pdf

    Aypay, A., & Eryılmaz, A. (2011). Relationships of high school students’ subjective well-being and school burnout. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences3(1), 181-199. Retrieved from https://iojes.net/index.jsp?mod=sayi_detay&sayi_id=955

    Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. In Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp. 37-61). Springer, Dordrecht.

    Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes50(2), 248-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L

    Bandura, A. (1996).  Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement? Psychological Inquiry7(1), 20-24.https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0701_3b  

    Bandura, A. (2005). The primacy of self‐regulation in health promotion. Applied Psychology54(2), 245-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00208.x

    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1977). Social learning theory (Vol.1). Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs.

    Bask, M., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Burned out to drop out: Exploring the relationship between school burnout and school dropout. European journal of psychology of education28(2), 511-528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0126-5

    Boekaerts, M. (2011). Emotions, emotion regulation, and self-regulation of learning: Center for the study of learning and instruction, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and KU Leuven. In Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 422-439). Routledge.

    Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., & Pintrich, P. R. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of self-regulation. Elsevier.

    Cazan, A. M., & Năstasă, L. E. (2015). Emotional intelligence, satisfaction with life and burnout among university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences180, 1574-1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.309

    Choi, H. J., Lee, S., No, S. R., & Kim, E. I. (2016). Effects of compassion on employees' self-regulation. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal44(7), 1173-1190. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2016.44.7.1173

    Cooper, A. N., Seibert, G. S., May, R. W., Fitzgerald, M. C., & Fincham, F. D. (2017). School burnout and intimate partner violence: The role of self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 112, 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.047

    Corominas, M., González-Carrasco, M., & Casas, F. (2021). Children’s school subjective well-being: The importance of schools in perception of support received from classmates. Educational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.5093/psed2021a7

    Cummins, R. A. (2012). Positive psychology and subjective well-being homeostasis: A critical examination of congruence. In A positive psychology perspective on quality of life (pp. 67-86). Springer, Dordrecht.

    Çapri, B., Gündüz, B., & Gökçakan, Z. (2011). Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri-Öğrenci Formu (MTE-ÖF)’nun Türkçe’ye uyarlaması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Turkish adaptation of Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Scale (MBI-SS): Its validity and reliability]. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 40(1), 134–147. Retrieved from http://egitim.cu.edu.tr/efdergi

    Çevik, Y. D., Haşlaman, T., Mumcu, F. K., & Gökçearslan, Ş. (2015). Özdüzenlemenin dikkat kontrolü boyutu: Bir ölçek uyarlama çalışması [Control Dimension of Self-regulation: A Scale Adaptation Study]. Başkent University Journal of Education2(2), 229-238. Retrieved from http://buje.baskent.edu.tr/index.php/buje/article/view/49/69

    David, A. (2010). Examining the relationship of personality and burnout in college students: The role of academic motivation. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 1, 90-104. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2509164

    Demirtaş, A. S. (2018). Duygu düzenleme stratejileri ve benlik saygısının mutluluğu yordayıcılığı [The predictive roles of emotion regulation strategies and self-esteem on happiness]. Electronic Turkish Studies13(11), 487-503. http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.13465

    Diehl, M., Semegon, A. B., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Assessing attention control in goal pursuit: A component of dispositional self-regulation. Journal of Personality Assessment86(3), 306-317. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8603_06

    Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin95(3), 542-575. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542

    Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34

    Diener, E. (2009). Subjective well-being. The Science of Well-being, 11-58. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-2350-6_2

    Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2011). Happiness: Unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. John Wiley & Sons.

    Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In E. Diener (Ed.), Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 67–100). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_4

    Doğan, T., & Çötok, N. A. (2011). Oxford mutluluk ölçeği kısa formunun Türkçe uyarlaması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Adaptation of the short form of the oxford happiness questionnaire into Turkish: A validity and reliability study]. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4 (36), 165-172.  Retrieved from http://www.turkpdrdergisi.com/index.php/pdr/article/view/100/101

    Eid, M., & Larsen, R. J. (2008). The science of subjective well-being. Guilford Press.

    Friedman, H. S., Kern, M. L., & Reynolds, C. A. (2010). Personality and health, subjective well‐being, and longevity. Journal of Personality78(1), 179-216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00613.x

    Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.

    Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences33(7), 1073-1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00213-6

    Hofer, J., Busch, H., & Kärtner, J. (2011). Self–Regulation and Well–Being: The Influence of Identity and Motives. European Journal of Personality25(3), 211-224. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.789

    Hui, C. M., & Harris-Bond, M. (2010). Relationship between social axioms and subjective well-being: The role of self-regulation. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies11(1), 29-51. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/relationship-between-social-axioms-subjective/docview/817299438/se-2

    Isen, A. M. (2000). Some perspectives on positive affect and self-regulation. Psychological Inquiry11(3), 184-187. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1449800

    Jacobs, S. R., & Dodd, D. (2003). Student burnout as a function of personality, social support, and workload. Journal of College Student Development44(3), 291-303.   https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2003.0028

    Kapıkıran, Ş., Yaşar, M., & Kapıkıran, N. A. (2016). Benlik saygısı ve okul tükenmişliği arasındaki ilişkide öz düzenlemenin doğrudan ve dolaylı rolü [The direct and indirect role of self-regulation in the relationship between self-esteem and school burnout]. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi6(45), 51-64. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tpdrd/issue/42745/515928

    Karreman, A., Van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A., & Deković, M. (2006). Parenting and self‐regulation in preschoolers: A meta‐analysis. Infant and Child Development: An International Journal of Research and Practice15(6), 561-579. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.478

    Katana, M., Röcke, C., Spain, S. M., & Allemand, M. (2019). Emotion regulation, subjective well-being, and perceived stress in daily life of geriatric nurses. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1097. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01097

    Kljajic, K., Gaudreau, P., & Franche, V. (2017). An investigation of the 2× 2 model of perfectionism with burnout, engagement, self-regulation, and academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 57, 103-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2017.06.004

    Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Frame, K. (2014). Burnout. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp142

    Love, H., May, R. W., Cui, M., & Fincham, F. D. (2020). Helicopter parenting, self-control, and school burnout among emerging adults. Journal of Child and Family Studies29(2), 327-337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01560-z

    Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of general psychology9(2), 111-131. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111

    Moore, S., & Diener, E. (2019). Types of subjective well-being and their associations with relationship outcomes. Journal of Positive School Psychology3(2), 112-118. Retrieved from https://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/118

    Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science6(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00298.x

    Ozan, C., & Kincal, R. Y. (2018). The effects of formative assessment on academic achievement, attitudes toward the lesson, and self-regulation skills. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice18(1), 85-118. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2018.1.0216

    Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

    Parviainen, M., Aunola, K., Torppa, M., Lerkkanen, M. K., Poikkeus, A. M., & Vasalampi, K. (2021). Early antecedents of school burnout in upper secondary education: a five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence50(2), 231-245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01331-w

    Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A., Zulauf, C., & Wilens, T. (2015). College students: mental health problems and treatment considerations. Academic Psychiatry39(5), 503-511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0205-9

    Pines, A. M. (1993). Burnout. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 386–402). Free Press.

    Pintrich, P. R., (2000). The role of orientation in self-regulated learning. In M., Boekaerts & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 13-39). Academic Pres. 

    Raiziene, S., Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, R., & Zukauskiene, R. (2014). School burnout and subjective well-being: evidence from cross-lagged relations in a 1-year longitudinal sample. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences116, 3254-3258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.743

    Ríos‐Risquez, M. I., García‐Izquierdo, M., Sabuco‐Tebar, E. D. L. Á., Carrillo‐Garcia, C., & Solano‐Ruiz, C. (2018). Connections between academic burnout, resilience, and psychological well‐being in nursing students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Advanced Nursing74(12), 2777-2784. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.13794

    Risemberg, R., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1992). Self‐regulated learning in gifted students. Roeperreview15(2), 98-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783199209553476

    Salmela-Aro, K., & Nurmi, J. (2004). Employees’ motivational orientation and well being at work: A person oriented approach. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 471–489. https://doi. org/10.1108/09534810410554498

    Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009a). School burnout inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment25(1), 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.25.1.48

    Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Pietikäinen, M., & Jokela, J. (2008). Does school matter? The role of school context in adolescents’ school-related burnout. European Psychologist13(1), 12-23. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.13.1.12

    Salmela-Aro, K., Savolainen, H., & Holopainen, L. (2009b). Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence38(10), 1316-1327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9334-3

    Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, I., Marques-Pinto, A., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Crosscultural Studies, 33, 464-481. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033005003

    Schwarzer, R., Diehl, M., & Schmitz, G. S. (1999). Self-regulation scale. Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/selfreg_e.htm

    Seibert, G. S., Bauer, K. N., May, R. W., & Fincham, F. D. (2017). Emotion regulation and academic underperformance: The role of school burnout. Learning and Individual Differences, 60, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2017.10.001

    Shreffler, J., Huecker, M., Martin, L., Sawning, S., Thé, S., Shaw, M. A., ... & Holthouser, A. (2020). Strategies to combat burnout during ıntense studying: Utilization of medical student feedback to alleviate burnout in preparation for a high stakes examination. Health Professions Education6(3), 334-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2020.04.009

    Swalander, L., & Taube, K. (2007). Influences of family based prerequisites, reading attitude, and self-regulation on reading ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology32(2), 206-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.01.002

    Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Pearson Education.

    Taylor, S. E., Pham, L. B., Rivkin, I. D., & Armor, D. A. (1998). Harnessing the imagination: Mental simulation, self-regulation, and coping. American Psychologist, 53(4), 429–439. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.4.429

    Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K., & Niemivirta, M. (2008). Achievement goal orientations and subjective well-being: A person-centred analysis. Learning and Instruction18(3), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.05.003

    Virtanen, T. E., Kiuru, N., Lerkkanen, M. K., Poikkeus, A. M., & Kuorelahti, M. (2016). Assessment of student engagement among junior high school students and associations with self-esteem, burnout, and academic achievement. Journal for Educational Research Online8(2), 136-157. https://doi.org/10.25656/01:12430

    Walburg, V. (2014). Burnout among high school students: A literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 42, 28-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.020

    Wolf, T. (1994). Stress, coping and health: Enhancing well‐being during medical school. Medical Education28(1), 8-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1994.tb02679.x

    Yang, H. J. (2004). Factors affecting student burnout and academic achievement in multiple enrollment programs in Taiwan’s technical–vocational colleges. International Journal of Educational Development24(3), 283-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2003.12.001

    Yang, H. J., & Farn, C. K. (2005). An investigation the factors affecting MIS student burnout in technical-vocational college. Computers in Human Behaviour21(6), 917-932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.001

    Yang, Z., Asbury, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). An exploration of problematic smartphone use among Chinese university students: Associations with academic anxiety, academic procrastination, self-regulation and subjective wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction17(3), 596-614. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9961-1

    Yorgason, J. B., Linville, D., & Zitzman, B. (2008). Mental health among college students: do those who need services know about and use them? Journal of American College Health57(2), 173-182. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.57.2.173-182

    Yu, J., & Chae, S. (2020). The mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between the academic burnout and psychological well-being of medical students. Korean Journal of Medical Education32(1), 13-21. https://doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2020.149

    Zhang, X., Klassen, R. M., & Wang, Y. (2013). Academic burnout and motivation of Chinese secondary students. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity3(2), 134-138. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJSSH.2013.V3.212

    Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist33(2-3), 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1998.9653292