|  ISSN: 2757-6116

Original article | Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 2022, Vol. 3(2) 175-191

Democratic behaviour tendency scale at school: A validity and reliability study

Nai̇l Deği̇rmenci̇, Bahadır Kılcan, Yusuf İNEL & Ali̇ Gökalp

pp. 175 - 191   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/jirte.2022.464.8   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2206-12-0003.R1

Published online: September 13, 2022  |   Number of Views: 28  |  Number of Download: 162


Abstract

This study aims to develop a measurement tool to find out the democratic behaviour tendencies of middle school students at school. For this purpose, the scale items were created by drawing upon the relevant literature and consulting with experts. The triple Likert-type scale, prepared by considering the levels of middle school students, was administered to a total of 512 students studying in five middle schools in the Denizli, Uşak, and Afyon provinces in the fall semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) revealed that the scale structure consisted of 12 items gathered under 3 factors “Being Respectful”, “Being Responsible” and “Equal Treatment” and factor loads varied between .49 and .74. The correlation analysis revealed that the correlation coefficients of the items collected under the factors forming the scale were higher than .20. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), which was carried out to confirm the structure formed with the EFA, revealed that the model formed was perfectly compatible with the collected data and the factors differed significantly, according to the Chi-Square (X2), significance and measurement values. It was also found that the developed scale explained 46.40% of the total variance and the Cronbach's Alpha value for the overall scale was .72. It was concluded that the measurement tool is a valid and reliable structure that can be used to determine the democratic behaviour tendencies of middle school students at school.

Keywords: Middle school students, democratic tendency, scale development.


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Degi̇rmenci̇, N., Kilcan, B., INEL, Y. & Gokalp, A. (2022). Democratic behaviour tendency scale at school: A validity and reliability study . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), 175-191. doi: 10.29329/jirte.2022.464.8

Harvard
Degi̇rmenci̇, N., Kilcan, B., INEL, Y. and Gokalp, A. (2022). Democratic behaviour tendency scale at school: A validity and reliability study . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), pp. 175-191.

Chicago 16th edition
Degi̇rmenci̇, Nai̇l, Bahadir Kilcan, Yusuf INEL and Ali̇ Gokalp (2022). "Democratic behaviour tendency scale at school: A validity and reliability study ". Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 3 (2):175-191. doi:10.29329/jirte.2022.464.8.

References

    Abdul-Gafoor, K. (2015). Validation of scale of commitment to democratic values among middle students. Guru Journal of Behaviour al and Social Sciences, 3(1), 361-373. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276107967 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Afşar, Ö. A. (2017). Nitelikli demokrasiden demokratik konsolidasyona demokrasi yaklaşımları [Democracy approaches to democratic consolidation from qualified democracy]. International Journal of Academic Value Studies, 3(12), 192-208. https://doi.org/10.23929/javs.303

    Akan, Y. (2011). Ortaöğretimde okuyan öğrencilerin demokrasi bilinci [Awareness Democracy Students in Middle Education]. Master Thesis, Sakarya University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Sakarya, Türkiye. Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ Access Date: 20/07/2022.

    Akar, C., İnel, Y., & Yalçıntaş, E. (2017). Sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının demokratik değerlere sahip olma düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenler çerçevesinde incelenmesi [Research of levels of democratic values of classroom teacher candidates on various variables. Journal of Current Researches on Educational Studies, 7(2), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26579/jocures-7.2.4

    Akbaşlı, S., Yanpar-Yelken, T., & Sünbül, Ö. (2010). Öğretmen adayı demokratik eğilim ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [A study to develop a scale for prospective teachers’ democratic tendency]. Uluslararası Avrasya Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1(1), 94-108. Retrieved from https://www.ijoess.com/DergiTamDetay.aspx?ID=27&Detay=Ozet   Access Date: 15/06/2022.

    Aslan, S. (2019). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin temel konulara ilişkin görüşlerinin bir analizi: çeşitli değişkenler açısından demokratik değerler [An analysis of middle school students’ views regarding basic democratic values of several variables]. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 491-500. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.491

     

    Aytaç, M., & Öngen, B. (2012). Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile yeni çerçevesel paradigma ölçeğinin yapı geçerliliğinin incelenmesi [The structure of environmental attidutes: First-order confirmatory factor analysis]. Journal of Statisticians, 5, 14-22. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/105674 Access Date: 10/06/2022.

    Bayramoğlu, E. O., & Kaya, H. İ. (2017). Öğretmenlerin demokratik değerleri ile iş doyumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [The research of the relation between teachers’ democratic values and their jop satisfaction]. Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences of Kafkas University, 20, 377-395. https://doi.org/10.9775/kausbed.2017.024 

    Bergmark, U., & Westman, S. (2018). Student participation within teacher education: emphasizing democratic values, engagement and learning for a future profession, Higher Education Research & Development, 37(7), https://doi.org/1352-1365.10.1080/07294360.2018.1484708

    Bıyık, S. (2019). Demokratik okul bağlamında bir okul geliştirme çalışması [A school development study in the context of the democratic school]. Master Thesis, East Mediterranean University, Graduate School of Education and Research, Gazimağusa, Turkish Republic of Cyprus. Retrieved from http://i-rep.emu.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/handle/11129/4784 Access Date: 10/06/2022.

    Burgueño, R., Sicilia, A., Lirola, M. J., & Alcaráz-Ibáñez, M. (2017). Psicometric properties of the democratic behaviour and autocratic behaviour  scale. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 9(1), 143-150. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32138609/ Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı [Handbook of Data Analysis for Social Sciences]. Ankara: Pegem.

    Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2017). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific Research Methods](23rd Edt). Ankara: Pegem.

    Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çokluk, Ö., & Köklü, N. (2013). Sosyal bilimler için istatistik [Statistics for social sciences]. Ankara: Pegem.

    Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural Equation Modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. (3rd Edition). Newyork: Routledge.

    Council of Europe, (2016). Competences for Democratic Culture (Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies. Strasbourg: Documents and Publications Department Council of Europe. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/16806ccc07 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Çapık, C. (2014). Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmalarında doğrulayıcı faktör analizinin kullanımı [Use of confirmatory factor analysis in validity and reliability studies]. Anatolian Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 17(3), 196- 205. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279526642  Access Date: 06/06/2022.

    Demir, H. (2013). Demokrasi düşüncesi gelişimi bağlamında demokrasi ve demokrasi karşıtı görüşler: Giovanni Sartori ve Carl Schmitt [Democracy and anti-democratic views in formation of the theory of democracy: Giovanni Sartori and Carl Schmitt]. Master Thesis, Hacettepe University Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara, Türkiye. Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ Access Date: 06/06/2022.

    Demircioğlu, H. G., & Tokdemir, A. M. (2008). Değerlerin oluşturulma sürecinde tarih eğitimi: Amaç, işlev ve içerik [The role of history education in the process of constructing values: Aims, functions and content]. Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi, 6(15), 69-88. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ded/issue/29185/312508 Access Date: 08/06/2022.

    Dewey, J. (2019). School and society, (Trs. Eds. Başman Avni and Kaymakçı Selahattin), 6th Edition, Ankara: Pegem.

     

    Dinç, E., & Üztemur, S. (2016). Ortaokul 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin demokratik değer algılarının karikatürler aracılığıyla incelenmesi [An investigation of 8th grade students’ perceptions of democratic values through cartoons]. Elementary Education Online, 15(3), 974-988. https://doi.org/10.17051/io.2016.79948

    Dinç, E., Sezer, A., Üztemur, S., & İnel, Y. (2018). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin demokratik değerlere ilişkin bilişsel yapılarının kelime ilişkilendirme testi aracılığıyla incelenmesi [A research on cognitive structures of middle school students for democratic values through word association test]. The Second International Symposium on Social Sciences Education, 225-234, (Çanakkale, Türkiye). Retrieved from https://rb.gy/aj4fwe  Access Date: 13/08/2022.

    Dowd, V. D., Carlson, A., & Mingming, M. (1999) The prospects for democratization in China: Evidence from the 1995 Beijing area study, Journal of Contemporary China, 8(22), 365-380. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670569908724353 

    Durna, T. (2017). Nedensellik ve araştırma tasarımları [Causality and Research Designs]. (Ed. K. Böke). In Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri [Research methods in social sciences] (pp. 153-199), (5th Edt.), İstanbul: Alfa.

    Duruhan, K., & Ersöz, Y. (2013). Ortaokulda demokrasi algıları ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. [Perceptions of democracy at middle school scale: Validity and reliability studies]. Journal of the School of History, 6(16), 657-672. https://doi.org/10.14225/Joh355

    Eisen, M., Ware Jr, J. E., Donald, C. A., & Brook, R. H. (1979). Measuring components of children’s health status. Medical Care, 902-921. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-197909000-00003

    El Shahed, A. M. (2017). Democratic education in kindergartens as perceived by teachers in public and private schools. International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences, 6(3), 117-123. Retrieved from https://www.journals.lapub.co.uk/index.php/perr/article/view/186 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Erbil, D. G., & Kocabaş, A. (2017). İlkokul 3. sınıf öğrencileri için bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması: Demokratik Tutum Ölçeği [A scale development study for 3rd grade elementary students: democratic attitude scale]. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 25(1), 221-232.  https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.309043

    Erdem, A. R., & Sarıtaş, E. (2006). Sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencilerinin öğretim elemanlarının davranışlarının demokratikliğine ilişkin algıları (PAÜ Örneği) [Perceptions of primary school teachers regarding the democratization of the behaviour of instructors (PAU Example)]. Journal of Selcuk University Institute of Social Sciences, 16, 525-538. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/susbed/issue/61792/924131 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. (3rd Edt.). London: Sage.

    Gayet-Viaud, C. (2015). Civility and democracy. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, 7(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.4000/ejpap.372

    George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step: a simple guide and reference. 17.0 update (10a ed.) Boston: Pearson

    Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th edt.), Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA.

    İlgan, A., Karayiğit, D., & Çetin, B. (2013). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin demokratik değerlere sahip olma düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi [Examining democratic values of middle school students in terms of some variables]. Manisa Celal Bayar University Social Sciences Journal, 11(2), 97-118. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344363235   Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    İnel, Y. (2019). Demokratik hayat. İ. Acun (Ed.), İnsan hakları ve demokrasi eğitimi [Human Rights and Democracy Education]. 85-100, Ankara: Pegem.

    Karaçalı-Taze, H., & Aktın, K. (2019). Ortaokul öğretmenlerinin demokratik davranış eğilimleri [Middle school teachers’ tendency to democratic behaviour]. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University Faculty of Education Journal, 19(1), 270-281. https://doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2019.19.43815-538319

    Karatekin, K., & Elvan, Ö. (2016). 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin demokrasi kavramına ilişkin bilişsel yapıları [The cognitive schema of 8th grade students about democracy]. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 16, 1405-1431. Retrieved from https://search.trdizin.gov.tr/yayin/detay/238630/  Access Date: 13/08/2022.

    Kesici, A., Pesen, A., & Oral, B. (2017). Öğretmenlerin sınıf içi demokratik davranışlarının çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi [Examining teachers' democratic behaviour s in the classroom according to various variables]. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 16(60), 35-45. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.289649

    Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Kontaş, H., Selçuk, E., & Polat, M. (2016). Ortaokul öğretmenlerinin demokratik tutumları ile öğrencilerin demokratik değerlere sahip olma düzeylerinin incelenmesi [An investigation democratic attitudes of middle school teachers and level of possession of democratic values by the students]. International Journal of Science, 44, 141-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.9761/JASSS3257

    Kovacs, P. (2009). Education for democracy: It is not an issue of dare; It is an issue of can. Teacher Education Quarterly, 9-23. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/23479198 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Koyuncu, İ., & Kılıç, A. F. (2019).  Açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanımı: Bir doküman analizi [The use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses: A document analysis]. Education and Science, 44(198), 361-388. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2019.7665            

    Kükürtçü, S. K., & Erkan, N. S. (2022). Çocuk hakları ve demokrasi eğitiminin çocukların demokratik davranışlarına etkisi [The effects of children’s rights and democracy education on children’s democratic behaviour s]. International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), 174-193. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.10   

    Leshchenko, M., Tymchuk, L., Pavlenko, N., & Ruban, L. (2020). Democratic values and skills of student in higher educational establishment of Poland and Ukraine. Advanced Education, 15, 105-115. https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.208316

    McHorney, C. A., Ware Jr, J. E., Lu, J. R., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1994). The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Medical Care, 40-66. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199401000-00004

    Merriam, S. B. (2018). Qualitative Research a Guide to Design and implementation. (3rd edt.) (Trs. Ed.  Selahattin Turan), Ankara, Türkiye: Nobel Publishing.

    Miklikowska, M., & Hurme, H. (2011). Democracy begins at home: Democratic parenting and adolescents’ suppor for democratic values. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(5), 541-557. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2011.576856

    Moller, J. (2006). Democratic schooling in Norway: Implications for leadership in practice. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5 (1), 53–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760500498779

    MoNE (2018). Sosyal bilgiler müfredatı (Ilk ve Ortaokul 4, 5, 6 ve 7. Sınıflar) [Social studies curriculum (primary and middle school 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades)]. Ankara, Türkiye: Ministry of National Education. http://mufredat.meb.gov.tr/

    Oğuz, A. (2011). Öğretmen adaylarının demokratik değerleri ile öğretme ve öğrenme anlayışları [The democratic values ​​of teacher candidates and their understanding of teaching and learning]. Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi, 9(22), 139-160. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ded/issue/29178/312449 Access Date: 13/08/2022.

    Özcan, G. (2016). Development of democratic teacher behaviour scale (DTBS). Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 260-268. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2015.2560 

    Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (4. Edt.). Berkshire, Allen&Urvin.

    Psailla, G., & Roland, W. (2007). E-commerce and web technologies: 8th International Conference, EC-Web 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, Proceedings, 4655, Springer, 2007. Retrieved fromhttps://vdoc.pub/documents/e-commerce-and-web-technologies-8th-international-conference-ec-web-2007-regensburg-germany-september-3-7-2007-proceedings-7eourgh76l70 Access Date: 13/08/2022.

    Rokeach, M. (1973). Nature of human values. New York: The Free Press.

    Rowland, S. (2003). Teaching for democracy in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/1356251032000052348

    Saygı-Baran, S. (2010). İlköğretim 6. ve 7. sınıf öğrencilerinin demokratik tutum geliştirmesinde aile, öğretmen ve okul yönetimi algılama biçimleri [6th and 7th grade students’ perceptions of family, teacher and school administration on their democratic attitude development]. Unpublished Master Thesis, Uludağ University, Institute of Social Sciences, Bursa, Türkiye. Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Seçer, İ. (2013). SPSS ve LISREL ile pratik veri analizi [Practical data analysis with SPSS and LISREL]. Ankara: Anı Publishing.

    Shechtman, Z. (2002). Validation of the democratic teacher belief scale (DTBS). assessment in   education: Principles. Policy & Practice, 9, 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594022000027672

    Sincar, M., Şahin, İ., & Beycioğlu, K. (2019). Demokratik tutum ölçeğinin geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [A validity and reliability study for the democratic attitude scale]. Gaziantep University Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(2), 91-100. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/976191 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Straub D. W. (1989). Validating instruments in MIS research.  MIS Quarterly, 13(2), 147–169. https://doi.org/10.2307/248922

    Subba, D. (2014). Democratic values and democratic approach in teaching: A perspective. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(12), 37-40. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-2-12A-6

    Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik [Reliability and validity in social and behaviour al measures]. Ankara, Türkiye: Seçkin Publishing.

    Şimşek, N. (2011). İlköğretim Sosyal Bilgiler dersinde öğrencilerin demokratik kazanımlarının çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Assesing the democratic attitudes of primary school students according to various factor in the social studies lesson]. Journal of National Education, 41(190), 188-202. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/milliegitim/issue/36192/406921 Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş temel ilkeler ve LISREL uygulamaları[Introduction to structural equation modeling, basic principles and LISREL applications]. Ankara, Türkiye: Ekinoks Publishing.

    Şişman, M., Güleş, H., & Dönmez, A. (2010). Demokratik bir okul kültürü için yeterlilikler çerçevesi [Qualifications framework for a democratic school culture]. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 167-182. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/usaksosbil/issue/21651/232775    Access Date: 29/07/2022.

    Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics. (6th ed.). New York: Pearson.

    Uygun, S., & Engin, G. (2014). Temel demokratik değerler ölçeği: bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması [Basic democratic values scale: a scale development study]. Turkish Studies, 9(5), 2021-2031. http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.6660

    Üztemur, S., Dinç, E., & İnel, Y. (2018). 8th year middle school pupils’ perceptions democratic values: A phenomenological analysis. Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education, 7(3), 786-825. https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.378708

    Vega-Ramirez, L., Avalos-Ramos, M. A., & Merma-Molina, G. (2021). Respect and equality as priority values for teaching on Physical Education: perspective of university students. Retos, 42, 418-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.85809

    Woodlin, T. (2019). Co-operative schools: democratic values, networks, and leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(11), 1164-1179. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2019.1617359

    Yeşil, R. (2002). Okul ve ailede insan hakları ve demokrasi eğitimi [Human rights and democracy education in school and family]. Ankara: Nobel.

    Yeşil, R. (2004). İnsan hakları ve demokrasi eğitiminde yöntem [The method for human rights and democracy education]. Gazi University Kırsehir Education Faculty Journal, 5(1), 35-41. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/57231/808451 Access Date: 13/08/2022.

    Yıldırım, C. (2018). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin demokratik vatandaşlık tutumlarının resmi ve örtük program açısından incelenmesi [The examination of the middle education students' democratic citizenship attitudes towards the formal and hidden curriculum]. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Adnan Menderes University, Institute of Social Sciences, Aydın, Türkiye. Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ Access Date: 29/07/2022.